Ask different manufacturers, and you’ll get different answers to this question. However, a careful look at how bamboo flooring is made should provide us with a fairly good idea of whether or not it can be refinished.
First of all, bamboo is not actual wood. It is a grass, and like all grasses is made of many strands. Here is the first problem. When you sand down the surface prior to refinishing, these strands will tear out very easily. You can see a picture of a sanded bamboo flooring plank below. The sandpaper used was 100 grit – a much more forgiving grit than would be used if you actually had to refinish an entire floor. You can see the fibers tearing out at the edges:
The next problem is the formaldehyde so commonly used in bamboo flooring production. When you sand the floor, this toxic chemical is turned to dust. Not only will the stench be unbearable, but the health risks will be incredible. Formaldehyde can cause health problems ranging in severity from eye and throat irritation to cancer. The dust will end up everywhere, contaminating your house as well as your lungs.
On the topic of glue, so much of it is used in bamboo flooring (as much as 20% glue content!) that a sanded down plank will look hideous, covered in glue pockets. You can see these blemishes in the picture above.
Since bamboo is not as durable as manufacturers would have us believe, you will eventually have to do something about the dented and scratched surface. If you can’t refinish it, you will have to replace it.